Two-way split-step Fourier and finite element based parabolic equation propagation tools: Comparisons and calibration
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KünyeApaydın, G., Özgün, Ö., Kuzuoğlu, M., & Sevgi, L. (2010). Two-way split-step Fourier and finite element based parabolic equation propagation tools: Comparisons and calibration. In 2010 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI) (pp. 1-4). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APS.2010.5560895
Parabolic equation (PE) has long been widely used in groundwave propagation modeling  because of its high capability in modeling atmospheric refraction and irregular terrain effects. It yields accurate electromagnetic signal strength contours of a given two-dimensional range-height propagation map. The most effective PE model is based on step-by-step Fourier transformation between transverse spatial and wavenumber domains. The so-called split-step parabolic equation (SSPE) method is a one way, forward scatter model (see, e.g., public domain virtual packages [2,3]). Recently, a two-way SSPE algorithm (2W-SSPE) was introduced to account for both forward- and backward-propagating waves over an arbitrary terrain [4,5].