The security and the legal aspects of Turkish straits
YazarCaşın, Mesut Hakkı
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KünyeCaşın, M. H. (2002). The security and the legal aspects of Turkish straits. In B. Öztürk & R. Özkan (Eds.), The Proceedings of the Symposium on the Straits Used for International Navigation (pp. 86-101). İstanbul: TÜDAV.
During the last century, Turkish Straits witnessed two world wars and, following them, the Cold War tension between the NATO and Warsaw Pacts just near the coast of the magnificent blue waters. Also, just a decade ago the terrible Soviet Black Sea Armada was the main threat 1 for NATO Alliance security strategies around these waters. But today, NATO has signed important agreements with Russia, the ex-arch-enemy of the Alliance which formulated (19+1) new security relationship and cooperation, also ongoing friendly common exercises with Black Sea riparian states naval fleets2 and Black Sea rapid deployment forces. Nowadays they are ready for humanitarian missions to protect democratic humanitarian ideas.All these tremendous peaceful steps exchange legal and security aspects of Turkish Straits in an optimistic dimension. However, up to 1,500 ships a day sail through the Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles Straits that links the Mediterranean and Black Seas off the coast of habitat of more than ten millions people in Turkey. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, an increasing energy transport has been aimed at taking the pressure off these strategic waterways that link the Caspian Sea oil and gas resources to the world market.3 Indeed, as Dana MUNRO stressed the Russians were the first to import petroleum to Germany in 1883 from rich Russian wells in Baku. According to this, German oil market demand jumped up from 300.000 tons to 755.199 tons in 1911, creating a big competition between Russia, Austria, Romania, and the USA, 4 just before the "Great Game" oil operation in the region. The existing Montreux Convention allows complete freedom of passage both day and night, regardless of the nationality of the vessels or their cargoes.